The systemic approach
The systemic approach is based on the fact that we all are part of a system, and that every action has an effect on such system. We all have a role in life, in the family, at school, at work, within a group of friends, everywhere. We take some roles by our own, but some of them are given by extern sources. Thus, the way we communicate and the way we interact could affect the relationships and cause des problems. The objective is to change the communication and the interaction styles, so we can improve our surrounding and our relationships. This type of therapy is suitable to deal with family, job and couples conflicts. This approach is influenced by the family therapy and the psychotherapeutic method of Salvador Minuchin.
The psychoanalytic approach
The psychoanalytic approach is based on the analyses of the unconscious through the method of free association, taking into account the person’s irrational drives, the instinct and the defense mechanisms. Thus, it’s important to make an interpretation of the information given by the person in order to lead him or her to the rational understanding and to the restructuration of the personality. This approach is founded on the theory of Sigmund Freud.
The cognitive-behaviorism is based on the fact that thoughts and behavior are connected, so behavior is learned, and thus, it could be modified. This kind of therapy is recommended to treat anxiety, depression, eating disorders, phobias, and children’s behavior. This type of therapy is mainly influenced by the theories of Iván Pávlov, Edward Thorndike, Skinner, Joseph Wolpe, Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck.
The Gestalt-Humanist approach
The Gestalt-Humanist approach pretends that the person has a satisfied life with success by diminishing certain symptoms, and freeing him/herself from mental blocks and from unresolved situations which prevent him/her to accomplish the autorealization and the personal development. It remarks the importance of living in the “here and now” moment, and to accept the responsibility of his/her own actions. It’s an active therapy with role-playing activities, creative activities, among other techniques. This approach is mainly influenced by the theories of Sigmund Freud, Fritz Perls and Laura Perls.